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        2019吉林市考研英語語法全面舉例講解:語法一致原則

        2018-06-03 17:15:09| 來源:網絡
        2018年通化考研已經接近尾聲,相信很多小伙伴已經開始了2019年新一輪的考研備考,吉林市研究考試信息網會為大家帶來2019吉林省考研最新備考指導、考研常識以及相關考研政策解讀。

        2019考研英語語法解析:邏輯意義一致原則

        語法一致原則是指句子的主語和謂語在語法形式上一致,即通常情況下,謂語動詞的單復數形式依主語的單復數形式而定, 主語為單數形式時謂語動詞用單數形式, 主語為復數形式時謂語動詞也用復數形式。具體內容請看下文。

        1. 以單數名詞或代詞、動詞不定式短語、動名詞短語或從句作主語時,謂語動詞一般用單數形式;主語為復數時,謂語動詞用復數形式。如:His father is working on the farm. / To study English well is not easy. / What he said is very important for us all. / The children were in the classroom two hours ago. / Reading in the sun is bad for your eyes.

        注意:由what引導的主語從句,后面的謂語動詞多數情況用單數形式,但若表語是復數或what從句是一個帶有復數意義的并列結構時,主句的謂語動詞用復數形式。如:What I bought were three English books. / What I say and do is (are) helpful to you.

        2. 由連接詞and或both …… and連接起來的合成主語后面,要用復數形式的謂語動詞。如:Lucy and Lily are twins. / She and I are classmates. / The boy and the girl were surprised when they heard the news. / Both she and he are Young Pioneers.

        注意:(1)若and所連接的兩個詞是指同一個人或物時,它后面的謂語動詞就應用單數形式。如:The writer and artist has come. (2)由and連接的并列單數主語前如果分別有no, each, every more than a (an) , many a (an)修飾時,其謂語動詞要用單數形式。如:Every student and every teacher was in the room. / No boy and no girl likes it.

        3. 主語為單數名詞或代詞,盡管后面跟有with, together with, except, but, like, as well as, rather than, more than, no less than, besides, including等引起的短語,謂語動詞仍用單數形式;若主語為復數,謂語用復數形式。如:Mr. Green, together with his wife and children, has come to China. / Nobody but Jim and Mike was on the playground. / She, like you and Tom, is very tall.

        4. either, neither, each, every 或no +單數名詞和由some, any, no, every構成的復合不定代詞,都作單數看待。如:Each of us has a new book. / Everything around us is matter.

        注意:(1)在口語中當either或neither后跟有“of+復數名詞(或代詞)”作主語時,其謂語動詞也可用復數。如:Neither of the texts is (are) interesting. (2)若none of后面的名詞是不可數名詞,它的謂語動詞就要用單數;若它后面的名詞是復數,它的謂語動詞用單數或復數都可以。如:None of us has (have) been to America.

        5. 在定語從句時,關系代詞that, who, which等作主語時,其謂語動詞的數應與句中先行詞的數一致。如:He is one of my friends who are working hard. / He is the only one of my friends who is working hard.

        6. 如果集體名詞指的是整個集體,它的謂語動詞用單數;如果它指集體的成員,其謂語動詞就用復數形式。這些詞有family, class, crowd, committee, population, audience等。如:Class Four is on the third floor. / Class Four are unable to agree upon a monitor.

        注意:people, police, cattle等名詞一般都用作復數。如:The police are looking for the lost child.

        7. 由“a lot of, lots of, plenty of, the rest of, the majority of + 名詞”構成的短語以及由“分數或百分數+名詞”構成的短語作主語,其謂語動詞的數要根據短語中后面名詞的數而定。如:There are a lot of people in the classroom. / The rest of the lecture is wonderful. / 50% of the students in our class are girls.

        注意:a number of“許多”,作定語修飾復數名詞,謂語用復數;the number of“……的數量”,主語是number,謂語用單數。

        8. 在倒裝句中,謂語動詞的數應與其后的主語一致。如:There comes the bus. / On the wall are many pictures. / Such is the result. / Such are the facts.

         

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